The problem of water infiltration in most cases requires rapid intervention measures. Causes of water infiltration are multiple, like:
- The lack of maintenance of the vertical and horizontal envelope of the building,
- Deficiencies due to improper installation of the components of the envelope,
- Normal wear and old materials that have exceeded their useful life,
- Sometimes it is the occupants who engage in inappropriate activities.
Infiltration of water through the roof:
The infiltration of water through the roof is attributable to several factors such as:
- An aged roof, poorly maintained, or poorly installed,
- Dried and cracked joints on the roof parapet,
- Exit flashings (overhanging the roof) damaged,
- A chimney without a hat or with a cracked crown pad,
- A buildup of water on the roof due to a counter slope,
- Clogged roof drain or unsealed exhaust ducts,
- Rusty and perforated or sometimes absent flashings,
- Materials deposited on the roof that can pierce the membrane,
- The installation of saucers on the parapet without the holes being sealed,
- Air conditioning units placed directly on the roof membrane, etc.
Ice accumulation at the edge of the roof:
The lack of a sloping roof edge waterproofing membrane can cause water to enter the attic, especially when ventilation and insulation are not adequate in the attic.
Both of these can cause ice build-up around the roof. The heat loss of the building causes the snow to melt on the roof. Afterwards, the water flows to the overhang of the roof and freezes again arriving under the soffits that are not heated, which will cause the formation of an ice barrier at the edge of the roof. Water trapped behind the ice can find a path and seep inward.
Infiltration of water by the vertical envelope
Water infiltration can occur through the building's vertical envelope. Here are some examples of possible causes:
- The presence of mortar joints hollowed out in the masonry;
- The absence of seals or seals that are dried and cracked around electrical lines or wiring, pipes, valves, electrical outlets, exterior lights, doors and windows, exhaust outlets;
- The lack of a waterproofing membrane around doors and windows and under the shelves;
- The lack of crowds at the base of the exterior siding;
- Deficiencies caused by improper installation of the waterproofing membrane, at the base of the siding, on the walls of the foundations;
- Deficiencies in the air barrier membrane can also cause water infiltration into the interior.
Why do we have to install weeping machines?
Rainwater can seep behind the brick facing by masonry joints that have defects (cracks in mortar joints, poorly executed vertical joints, poor quality mortar) and also bricks that absorb moisture. 'water.
The infiltrated water flows along the inner face of the facing. Arriving at the base of the wall, at the junction between the walls of the foundations and the brick walls, the water must be evacuated to the outside by the chantepleures.
The waterproofing membrane - properly installed, sealed and overlapping the rainscreen - prevents water from seeping inward.
Infiltration of water in the basement or crawl space:
Water infiltration in the basement can be explained in several ways:
- The presence of a counter slope around the building.
- The lack of gutters or down gutters pouring near the foundations.
- Unrepaired cracks in the foundation walls.
- The absence of copings for the windows of the basement.
- Inadequate clearance between the floor and the exterior siding.
- Un French drain non-existent or non-functional.
- The lack of an exterior waterproofing system for foundation walls.
Maintenance or repair:
Water infiltration can cause damage to the structure and finish of the building and often causes the formation of mold that can alter the quality of the air inside the building. It turns out that repairing the damage created by water infiltration is sometimes very expensive.
Thus, regular maintenance of the building envelope can be much less costly in the long run compared to major and complicated repairs due to water infiltration into the structure or into the building.